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This is a true story of one of the many hazards that occurred during and after the War years. Accidents that threatened many lives, due to the failure of equipment.
George and a companion were to be sent to Hongkong from Malaya and as they were needed urgently there, boarded the overnight Flying Boat taking off from the Straits of Johore. They took off from the water but one of the engines failed. The Pilot attempted to make an emergency landing but the plane skimmed an island causing the rear section to break-off.
George and his companion were thrown clear and found themselves in the water. He and his companion were Canadians born of Japanese parents, George was slightly built but his companion was very heavy and couldn't swim. He managed to keep them both afloat until they reached some floating debris hoping that a rescue boat could find them in the dark, but suddenly the thousands of gallons of high octane fuel that had spilled on the water, ignited.
The rescue boats retreated to a safer distance and George desperately paddled further away. They were finally rescued and taken to a Hospital where it was found that George had a broken collar bone and was hospitalised. He must have been in agony during the time they were in the water, but managed to save both their lives.
This story had a happy ending as George had been dating a Singapore girl and he was loath to leave her. Due to the accident he never went to Hongkong and was reunited with his girlfriend. In a few months he requested and was granted permission to Marry and after a short time they were repatriated to Canada.
My part in Tojo's Downfall
It is just over 60 years ago when I was involved in Operation Zipper, which was the Occupation of the Malay Peninsular, originally surrendered to the Japanese in 1942. I was on the Troopship Worcester out of Bombay heading towards a beach close to Port Swetenham in Malaya. We had been preparing for this Invasion for some time and were ready to go when a Superfortress Aircraft named "Enola Gay" dropped a superbomb on the City of Hiroshima in Japan. It was the first Atom Bomb and began the process of Surrender by the Japanese Government.
The reason why the Allies decided to cause the mass destruction and loss of life was the fact that the Japanese were fanatical in their defence of the Islands in the Pacific that the Allies were trying to occupy leading to the Invasion of the Japanese Islands. It was considered that the cost of lives on both sides would be enormous with the Japanese population Suiciding as they did on Okinawa Island, when they were overrun. Whatever the reason the Japanese Government did Surrender but the forces in the Occupied Countries were an unknown factor and may have decided to fight it out.
I was part of a small contingent of 4 or 5 Officers 4 Indian troops a Malay (who had been captured off a small coastal steamer in the Johore Straits) one British other Rank (me, as general factotum). The Officers were to help interpret when negotiating with the Japanese. As we neared the coast, we joined-up with other ships bound for Malaya.
Arriving early in the morning we assembled on deck ready to disembark, when the Landing Crafts began the short trip to Morrib Beach which we could see a few miles away. It was dark by the time we were on the LCI but could see well due to the combined illumination from the ships in the Bay. I was first off and found myself wading ashore in waist-deep water followed by the others. We began to light our fags when I was recalled to the LCT to help with one of the Officers baggage. After we moved up the beach to a grove of Casuarina trees, it was decided we would kip down until it was light enough to proceed. Unfortunately the Amphibious Tanks began to arrive and passed close by. We saw their headlights and hoped that one didn't decide to take a shortcut through the trees, when we may have become more integrated with Malaya than we intended. However all was well and at first light we moved inland until a friendly lorry driver gave us a lift. We passed many Attap Houses but all were empty, the natives sensibly had evacuated until they could work-out if we were friendly or not.
We came to the Klang River where there was a hold-up due to the fact the existing bridge was not large enough for the volume of traffic. The Engineers were busy erecting a Bailey Bridge so we got off the road to have Breakfast. There were tin 1 man packs of hermetically sealed food, issued for Breakfast, Dinner and Supper. The Breakfast pack included a cube of Compressed Porridge a cube of Compressed Cheese, 5 Cigarettes some Biscuits and a small bar of Chocolate. Water purifying tablets and 4 sheets of green paper for utilitarian purposes. You boiled some water in your Mess Tin then pared slices of porridge into it and soon you had a tin of creamy sweet porridge. The cheese looked like dried soap but did taste of cheese.
The officers went to obtain further instructions and returned to tell us that they had to proceed to K. L. and we were to follow later. What was K.L? I didn't want to show my ignorance and asked the Malay afterwards. It was Kuala Lumpur the Capital of Malaya and only 5 or 6 miles away.
We had been given a few Malay Dollars and the Indian Cook scouted around and found a Malay that sold him a Chicken. He paid for it in our precious dollars. When he told me I told him he should have offered cigarettes or chocolate first which was more acceptable to the natives than paper money of doubtful value. From there on we found that cigarettes, biscuits or chocolate were very good for barter. Anyway we reimbursed him and enjoyed the chicken between us. There was a Office nearby, raised on stilts so that you could walk under it, so we all kipped down for the night.
The next day after breakfast we went on to the road to thumb a lift. We were told that the Japanese Surrender would take place at Victoria School so we tried to get there. As we got off the lorry we met a number of happy smiling children. Yes they knew where the School was so they set off with us, thoughtfully taking excess luggage off us,- Chocolate, Biscuits, Boiled sweets- or anything else they could wheedle out of us. So feeling like the Pied Piper we found our way there.
There were hoards of troops milling around the outside of the building and peering through a window I confirmed we were in the right place as the room was full of 'Brass-hats' , a name given to high ranking officers. So we waited for several hours until finally an officer of our contingent found us and announced that after negotiations the Japanese were agreeable to an honourable surrender. The only thing left to do was to find a place to kip in the dry before seeking a permanent location for the rest of the Unit which should be following shortly.
We found that all the houses that the British Sahibs left in 1941 were now vacant again as the Japs had all moved out, so we could take our pick. We found a large modern house suitable for the Officers with another opposite for the Other Ranks, the only trouble was as the Japs had left they had smashed all the ornate glass light fittings and the Parquet floor was covered in shards of glass. The banisters had not been left out, with inch deep sword-cuts every 2 or 3 inches. However the Electric Light worked and we had running water for drinking and showers so we felt good. It didn't take long to sweep-up the broken glass, there was nothing we could do about the banister and if the house is still there could still be seen. We did have one stroke of luck I found 3x40 Gallon drums of petrol in a rear storeroom, petrol was very scarce.
Within a few days the main Contingent arrived and with transport we were able to get around better. We found a Godown (Warehouse) full of goodies and came away with a bag of rice, Camp Beds, Plates, chairs and tables and other useful things. What luxury! At night in our spare time we went to the BB Amusement Park. There were Shops, Theatres, Cinemas and Open-air Cafés. You could buy a pair of locally made shoes for an unopened tin of 50 cigarettes. You could spend the night in the Cafés drinking cups of coffee and nibbling on free sun-flower seeds and peanuts for a few cents or cigarettes, listen to the local band playing European Music or watch a Chinese Opera with it's elaborate costumes, all dialogue sung in a high-pitched slightly off key voice, accompanied by Gongs, Cymbals and One-String Fiddles.
It couldn't last, we found that the equipment we had set up was not needed and the Headquarters based in Singapore needed personnel to rewire the Accommodation that they had taken over, the Japs had Sabotaged the Electric Wiring before leaving. So I was sent on the over-night train to Singapore. I did not see Kuala Lumpur again for about 35 years, when my wife and I stayed overnight in one of the High-rise Hotels at the beginning of a tour of Malaysia. There was little evidence of the K.L. I knew in 1945, except perhaps for the Railway Station which was designed as a Mogul Palace in the 1930's.I had arrived via Bombay to Malaya (HMS Worcestershire) and after a short time in K.L. was sent to Singapore just before Christmas. We were in Bombay preparing to Invade Malaya (Operation ZIPPER) when the Atom bombs were dropped. After a short delay Operation ZIPPER went ahead to occupy Malaya and repatriate the Japanese Forces.
A photograph of myself in Singapore circa Dec. 1945.
Singapore and Johore.
I was on the Overnight train to Singapore to join the Headquarters team and assist them rewire the Civilian Houses they had taken over. As it got dark the lighting came on, but due to the fact the batteries were worn-out did not do much to the gloom. When we stopped at innumerable Stations they failed completely and did nothing to help the Boarding passengers who attempted to get on through any accessible opening, including the open window near me. A few English expletives deterred them but never the less the carriages soon became overflowing. It seemed that due to the Japanese restrictions on travel, everyone now made up for lost time.
As it got lighter I could see we were travelling through miles of flame blackened stumps of Rubber Trees, the result of the scorched-earth policy in force when we were retreating through Malaya in 1941. We crossed over the Causeway that linked Malaya to Singapore island and was surprised to see how small the gap in the causeway spanned by the road and rail bridges and realised why it didn't take long for the Japanese to cross this portion when it had been blown-up. We passed through the Dock area which was badly damaged and came to the terminus also showing signs of devastation.
A lorry picked me up and took me to the temporary accommodation where I was introduced to my new mates. We began the repair of the houses our unit would occupy, we found that the Japs had removed strategic portions of the cables, so we attempted to find each end or rewire as necessary. Although were working in the roof void with the help of a rigged temporary light, the work was hot, gloomy and uncomfortable. Anyway it didn't take us long and extra points were installed as needed. The next job we tackled was to install a Sound Reinforcement System in St. Andrews Cathedral in Singapore. Our C/O was friendly with the Dean and wanted to do him a favour, so we scrounged cable and loudspeakers and with the microphones we had, all we needed was an amplifier. As our C/O was an ex Post Office boffin he quickly drew up a simple circuit diagram and we set to work. It worked very well, considering it was cobbled together.
It was getting near Christmas time and we made preparations for the first peacetime Christmas for 6 years. We tried to make the dining area more festive. We heard that there was a Refugee Camp in Singapore for the Dutch families that were evacuated from the Dutch East Indies, (now Indonesia), due to the Insurgents fighting there. They had spent over 3 years in Japanese Camps and now had to put-up with another camp until there was room to repatriate them on the Liners. We made enquiries and found that the children were allowed to visit and we were able to give them a Christmas Party.
We all set to work to make things a success; we even erected a Christmas tree, not a pine, but who cared. There were very few pine trees in Singapore and snow was even more unusual. On the Saturday before Christmas we collected our allocation of children, none over 10 years of age and tried to make the party a success with them. Presents were confined to biscuits, chocolate and sweets but we did have jelly and ice-cream for them. We don't know who enjoyed themselves more, us or the children. After a few hours they were returned to the camp, tired but replete. After Christmas we were back at work. The Singapore Broadcasting Corporation did not have any Outside Broadcasting Equipment so we fitted 2 mobile disc recorders into a wireless van. We tried to make the recorders vibration proof in case we had to record on the move. The only time this was attempted was when we were returning to the City from the Airport after meeting Pandit Nehru, who was on a P/R visit, we were due to report on the Official Opening by him of a Recreational Hut for Indian Expatriates.
Lord Louis Mountbatten, who was the Supreme Commander met him and was escorting him. They were to visit the Governor of Singapore first so we went straight to the recreation hut to set-up our equipment. By the time the Official Party arrived there were several thousand expatriates waiting and they had a problem driving to the venue. Our Sargent was inside and helped to clear the way for the official party, when Lord Louis got inside he said to our sergeant " Give me a hand with this table" , They placed it across the entry to prevent the rush of people trying to get in. In the meantime dozens of people were clambering on to the roof of our van to get a better look and I was trying to explain that the roof was in danger of caving in. After a few short speeches the party left, - the future (and last) Viceroy of India escorting the future Prime Minister of India.
We had very many recording assignments, from recording children's concerts to the sentencing of Japanese War Criminals who had committed atrocities on civilian and prisoners of war. Some were sentenced to hang others to long prison sentences .Very many Japanese criminals had vanished into the "other ranks" to hide their identity, most prisoners were screened, but with only vague descriptions to go on, many slipped through and escaped punishment.
The demobilisation of the older men was due resulting in some wild parties. Beer was now being brewed locally called Tiger Cub, not just Tiger as it is now, as the brewers were limited in the raw material allocated, but very acceptable anyway.
We had acquired a Buick 8 seater open top tourer car for our recreational use in which we found many deserted bathing beaches. Even then the war could not be forgotten, on one near Seletar we discovered the rusty remains of a Bren gun left in the retreat to Singapore nearly 4 years before. On another fishing trip in the Johore Straits we came across a Planters' luxury house that had shell and bullet damage when the Japanese had invaded from the mainland. The authorities needed the private houses we were in, so we had to leave the Island, relinquishing our Buick too. Two large houses were found in Malacca and we were preparing for the Unit to move, but it was deemed to be too far away. Pity really as it backed on to the Malaccan Straits and ideal for swimming.
We eventually ended in tented accommodation near Johore Bahru but as they were the Marquee style sleeping 4 men, it was quite comfortable. We overlooked the Straits of Johore so it was only a short walk to a shark-proof enclosure for safe swimming. Time rolled on and we were all waiting for demob. Stalin began to get aggressive so demob slowed, but the conditions mitigated the wait. We had a large contingent of Indian troops and as India was rapidly reaching Partition, with the consequent squabbling between India and Pakistan the majority had to return, leaving a few Gurkhas behind.
At the same time I was Posted to Radio SEAC's Transmitters, in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) to finish my time before demob. Ceylon had a similar climate to Singapore, so I settled in well. I found the beaches even better with really good surf at Mount Lavinia just outside Columbo, so as a recreation vehicle was laid on once a week I learned to ride the waves. Free Cinema shows were laid on in the Airforce camp at Negombo nearby. After a few months my demobilisation came through and I left in the Troopship Dunera for the cold November fogs of England.
Chungkai War Cemetery
For some considerable time after the war, I returned to Singapore and Thailand to try to locate the whereabouts of missing comrades. If I can assist anyone in locating a missing relative, let me have whatever spare details you may have and I will try to pinpoint as near as possible.
During the second world war, the withdrawal of British forces from north Malaya aloong the west coast into Johore Baru was committed the most horrific massacre by the Japanese ever recorded. The withdrawal into Johore meant the abandonment of Selangor, Negri Sembilan and the ancient colony of Mallaca, Between the 19th and 20th January 1942, 3rd Indian corps retreated through the Australian lines. Gordon Bennetts Australian 22nd Brigade plus remnants of the British Brigade and 2nd battalion the Loyals who were fighting a rear guard action. They had sustained a large number of casualties and were ordered to fall back onto the village of Parit Sulong. more than 300 Australian, Indian and British wounded were left to fend for themselves. The Japanese over run the village on the morning of the 22nd January 1942. All 300 were either killed in battle or massacred. The MOD have never revealed the names of those massacred by the Japanese on that day and their names were included with 26,000 others who had no known grave. But now it can be revealed that the following were the victims. In many instances it has not been possible to obtain the addresses of next of kin of British soldiers murdered. However the names and service numbers of each are given after the following true story of how they died.
Taken from Authenticated War Crimes Documentation
This investigation will continue as many others are involved in this major atrocity. J.G. Godwin (Capt.)investigating Officer 2nd Aust.War Crimes Section 22 July 1949
File 151 G Weekly Investigation Report: 21 September 1949
151H OPERATION PARIT SULONG
168 I Completed the interrogation of former Captain Shoichi Nonaka who held the position of personal aide to the GOC Konoe Division, Lieutenant-General Takuma Nichimura at the time of the Malayan Campaign. Nonaka admitted to have been a member of the convoy (HQ Konoe Division) that stopped at Pant Sulong in the late afternoon of 22 January 1942. According to Nonaka he and Lt-Gen. Nishimura were travelling in the same vehicle and upon stopping at Pant Sulong he, Nishimura and the Chief of Staff, Colonel lmai, and other HQ officers alighted from their respective vehicles and walked over towards some buildings on the right-hand side of the main road. About half-way there the said party was met by a junior officer (a 2nd lieutenant, name unknown) who reported directly to Lt Gen. Nishimura. Nonaka states he is unable to recall the full details of this officer's report; however, he does remember him saying that a great number of prisoners had been taken during the battle for Parit Sulong and that most of them were confined in a large wooden building which he pointed out.
After finishing his report this said officer led the GOC and accompanying officers towards the building identified. On arrival at the building Nonaka noticed about six or seven wounded Australian soldiers in various postures near the steps leading up to a wide verandah.then He also recalls seeing the bodies of many dead Australian soldiers scattered about at diffemt places in front of this building Among the dead were some Indian soldiers..(2) Nonaka then recounted how he, Lt-Gen. Nishimura, Colonel Imai and the officer-in-charge of the prisoners climbed onto the verandah and peered through one of the building's two open doors at the mass of wounded POWs confined therein. After this short inspection had been made, the said party retraced their steps and rejoined the other HQ officers in front of the building. Nonaka stated that Lt Gen. Nishimura turned and gave him the following oral order.
(3) instruct the officer-in-charge of the prisoners to execute (Shobun Seyo) all the prisoners by firing squad. Kill them all.' No sooner had Nonaka acknowledged this order than the Chief of Staff. Colonel lmai gave him the following additional order.
(4) 'The bodies of the prisoners are to he cremated on completion of the execution and all traces of their disposal obliterated.' Nonaka confesses to having relayed these two orders to the officer concerned, following which and whilst walking back towards the parked vehicles. Lt Gen. Nishimura directly ordered S/O Supply Major Eisaku Morioka to remain behind and supervise everything. Former Colonel Kamejiro Imai has previously been requested for interrogation; (However, the Japanese authories have officially reported this former senior officer as having died from sickness in Siberia on 22 March 1947). Thus and despite our request for official Soviet verification, of which none has been forthcoming, further inquiries to the Soviet authorities reveal the following.
(5) Colonel Kaniejiro Imai had never been listed as a prisoner of war of the Soviet Union. His alleged captivity and death by sickness is completely unknown. This investigation officer discounts quite frankly the truthfulness or veracity of the notification received from 'Japanese Army Records', and is more inclined to believe the Soviet authorities as an inipartial source of honest in formation.
Observation : At most times and whenever a Class A war criminal is finally identified, particularly if formerly a powerful and influential senior officer, we invariably encounter subtle obstruction to their apprehension by means of deviousness and duplicity. for a variety of dubious circumstances too numerous to mention. the coincidences of major war criminals effectively disappearing is no accident. when such vanishing acts are unaccountably but officially confirmed without investigation by Japanese authorities is tempted to suggest the word, collusion. It is hard to avoid being cynical. This charade happens too often with regard to officially sanctioned Japanese fabrications. The second part of this priority investigation should shortly he concluded and entered into Official Weekly Reports as quickly as possible have only to add my disappointment that the powers that be (Legal and Prosecution Division) do not propose to proced with a fresh prosecution against Lt Gen. Nishiniura. a most evil man. Perhaps the sheer horror of what ordered against defenceless and wounded Australian prisoners. particularly the large number, would shock the world.
JGG/BEJ. REPORT OF INVESTIGATING OFFICER (Capt. J.G. Godwin)
File 151 G Massacre of Prisoners of War. PARIT SULONG I )
Captain Godwin interrogated former Major Fukashi Hinokunia who had a grim story to tell and which was recounted to him in full detail over a meal by Staff Officer: Supply, Major Eisaku Mono who related, Major Morioka who was detailed by the GOC to remain at Parit Sulong and supervise the mass execution. This is what happened
(2) 'One hour before dark, the prisoners were ordered to make their way to an assembly point at the rear of a row of damaged shops. Those who were unable to walk were carried by the walking wounded, while others, also walking wounded were made to carry the bodies of their dead comrades who were laying in the dust. The pretext used to entice the Indian and Australian prisoners to drag themselves to what was in the designated execution site, was that medical treatment, and food. Concealed within the rear rooms of damaged shops, three squads of executioners waited behind tripod mounted heavy machine-guns.
When all of the prisoners had arrived at the assembly point and were either sitting or laying prone, depending on the seriousness of their wounds, the machine-guns began their wicked thumping chatter of death. Such concentrated machine-gun fire cut swathes of carnage from three different points, enfilading the closely grouped prisoners. chopping flesh and limbs to pieces. When cries of pain and shock were silenced, so were the machine-guns. Morioka mentioned to Hinokunia that seven prisoners had to be bayoneted despite the concentrated gun-fire. They had still showed signs of life. Funeral pyres were quickly expedited per the simple method of collapsing six abandoned shops with mortars and hand grenades. following which 161 bodies were carried in an endless stream to the timber dry debris and placed in piles where the engulfing flames would consume most efficiently. A considerable amount of paraffin obtained from a captured lorries forty gallon drums and some sixty gallons of gasoline, were then splashed and spilled over and around the corpses. To ensure total incineration, tyres and demolition material from the walls and verandahs of the collapsed buildings. were also heaped onto the quite large pyres.
At 8 pm, according to Major Hinokuma and as related by Major Morioka. he. Morioka, gave the signal for everyone to stand well clear. Then a flaming torch was thrown. The demolished buildings erupted with a whooshing cataclysmic roar. In the event four adjacent dwellings and nine shops burned to the ground before midnight. As told to Flinokuma by Morioka, the stench of roasting flesh permeated the warm night air until the small hours of the morning when the fierce flames had reduced to mere flickers above piles of grey white ash. But even then, radiated heat Irom concealed red hot embers could be felt twenty yards away. Without any doubt, the mass cremation. I ike the execution, was an outstanding example of efficiency. Morioka told Hinokuma it was 4 am before he snatched a few hours sleep. He awoke at a little after lOam and ste; outside into the hot morning sunlight he stared across ati the shops had stood. Nothing remained except scattered mounds of grey ash little more than two feet high. Clearly incineration had been total. After enjoying a good breakfast and self-satisfied at the report he would be able to give the Chief of Staff of HQ Konoe Division, now temporarily quartered at Batu Pahat, he left Parit Sulong at about midday and was driven south to rejoin HQ Konoe Divison.' This interrogation will continue as a high priority.
AFTER A GREAT DEAL OF RESEARCH THE FOLLOWING HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED AS THE VICTIMS
Davies Frank 4862501 1/Leicester 28 Derbyshire
Danciger Richmond NX38170 2.15 Fd RA 30 New Sth Wales
Goodfellow Victor J NX66957 2/15 Fd R A 27 New Sth Wales
Williams Frederick S NX8458 2/15 Fd RA 39 New sth Wales
Whitham Arthur E NX32532 2/15 Fd RA 27 New Sth Wales
Wheeler Edgar C NX45193 2/15 Fd RA 41 New Sth Wales
Tornquist Oscar T NX45314 2/15 Fd RA 19 New Sth Wales
McNamara Roy NX20559 2/15 fd RA 27 New sth Wales
McLachlan Kenneth D NX54192 2/15 fd RA 32 New Sth Wales
McLachlan Melvin B NX59906 2/15 fd RA 28 New Sth Wales
Grenstreet Neil NX28405 2/15 Fd RA 24 New sth Wales
Fisher Henry M NX27268 2/15 Fd RA 28 New sth Wales
Bruce Leonard L NX29690 2/15 Fd RA 28 New Sth Wales
Brown Frederick J NX27200 2/15 FD RA 23 New Sth Wales
Baxter Eric J NX6903 2/15 Fd RA 23 New Sth Wales
Atkins Lester J NX26541 2/15 Fd RA 23 New Sth Wales
Pearson Ronald H NX34184 2/15 Fld RA 36 Surbiton Surrey
Couch Bert R NX35271 2/18 Aus Inf 33 New Sth Wales
Mainwaring Leslie M NX56205 2/18 Aus Inf 30 New Sth Wales
Wilson Arthur H NX55090 2/19 Aus Inf 29 New Sth Wales
Williams Angel A NX35709 2/19 Aus Inf 24 New sth Wales
White George L NX35391 2/19 Aus Inf 22 New Sth Wales
Walker Leslie R NX35230 2/19 Aus Inf 27 Queensland
Walker Eric W NX2479 2/19 Aus Inf 21 New Sth Wales
Thomlinson Francis M NX54801 2/19 Aus Inf 28 New Sth Wales
Snelling Newt R L NX70191 2/19 Aus Inf 41 New sth Wales
Smith Arthur P NX35791 2/19 Aus Inf 30 New Sth Wales
Smith Frederick B NX6594 2/19 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Sheridan William H NX60258 2/19 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Sheldrick Ernest L NX57146 2/19 Aus Inf 22 New Sth Wales
Sawyer George F NX29299 2/19 Aus Inf 24 New Sth Wales
Richardson Leslie H VX45058 2/19 Aus Inf 21 Victoria
Quinlan James E NX35413 2/19 Aus Inf 26 New Sth Wales
Quinliven Leslie J NX35635 2/19 Aus Inf 21 New Sth Wales
Oliver Robert W NX55429 2/19 Aus Inf 22 New Sth Wales
Nugent Goerge E NX54952 2/19 Aus Inf 25 New Sth Wales
Mitchell William J NX35253 2/19 Aus Inf 35 ??
Miller Victor NX55906 2/19 Aus Inf 30 New Sth Wales
Miles Charles c NX35260 2/19 Aus Inf 25 New sth Wales
Maxwell Claude NX52369 2/19 Aus Inf 39 Queensland
Mahon Kevin G NX36028 2/19 Aus Inf 33 New sth Wales
McNabb George F T NX35403 2/19 Aus Inf 29 New sth Wales
Leonard Francis J NX56221 2/19 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Kennedy William P NX5255 2/19 Aus Inf 39 New sth Wales
Jones Jack NX33265 2/19 Aus Inf 24 New Sth Wales
Harris Mervyn K NX27593 2/19 Aus Inf 29 New Sth Wales
Hamilton Alexander M NX33196 2/19 Aus Inf 29 Tasmania
Hall Percival NX35156 2/19 Aus Inf 33 Victoria
Hall Henry NX58109 2/19 Aus Inf 26 New sth Wales
Grosvenor Henry NX35568 2/19 Aus Inf 34 New sth Wales
Greentree Ernest NX54322 2/19 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Gallagher John NX36360 2/19 Aus Inf 26 New Sth Wales
Fuller Frederick NX35714 2/19 Aus Inf 35 New sth Wales
Freeman Leonard C NX52751 2/19 Aus Inf 25 Victoria
Fitzgibbon James M NX60362 2/19 Aus Inf 25 New sth Wales
Fallow Charleton NX34869 2/19 Aus Inf 27 New sth Wales
Evans Leonard E NX35458 2/19 Aus Inf 39 London UK
Evans Clarence L NX55861 2/19 AUS iNF 28 New Sth Wales
Enke Arnold C VX55997 2/19 Aus Inf 39 New sth Wales
Davies Jack L NX56212 2/19 Aus Inf 21 New Sth Wales
Christie Jack NX59619 2/19 Aus Inf 22 New sth Wales
Bullock Keith A K NX56143 2/19 Aus Inf 21 New Sth Wales
Buckley James S NX25935 2/19 Aus Inf 24 New sth Wales
Bruce Leonard J NX905 2/19 Aus Inf 27 New sth Wales
Brookes Douglas C NX7072 2/19 Aus Inf 21 New sth Wales
Brett Frank NX59483 2/19 Aus Inf 40 ??
Breakspear Sudney NX51241 2/19 Aus Inf 29 New Sth Wales
Bourchier Harry L NX35235 2/19 Aus Inf 37 Welwyn Herts
Armitt Archie E NX60270 2/19 Aus Inf 28 New sth Wales
Harrison Leonard J NX36101 2/19 Aus Inf 28 ??
Forrest Leslie W NX35806 2/19 Aus Inf 32 New sth Wales
Finnigan Raymond NX30059 2/19 Aus Inf 22 New sth Wales
Woodhead Benjamin VX55025 2/29 Aus Inf 39 Queensland
Wilson Thomas R VX41801 2/29 Aus Inf 36 Victoria
West Bruce VX55681 2/29 Aus Inf 22 Victoria
Waddington Harold F VX53606 2/29 Aus Inf New sth Wales
Shadwick George H TX4600 2/29 Aus Inf 20 Tasmania
Parker Edward M VX36253 2/29 Aus Inf 37 Victoria
Murtagh Patrick VX56033 2/29 Aus Inf 32 Victoria
Meagher Desmond F VX53456 2/29 Aus Inf 23 ??
McGovern Henry P VX27980 2/29 Aus Inf 35 Lanarkshire Scot
McDonald Mervin VX42752 2/29 Aus Inf 23 ??
Knight Ronald J VX76541 2/29 Aus Inf 29 Victoria
Kennedy Daniel M VX43146 2/29 Aus Inf 20 VictorIA
Hawkins George VX44488 2/29 Aus Inf 34 Victoria
Hansen Thomas VX37072 2/29 Aus Inf 38 ??
Goodnan Alfred VX46999 2/29 Aus Inf 37 Victoria
Gamble Robert G VX56175 2/29 Aus Inf 22 Victoria
Forrester Robson G VX45114 2/29 Aus Inf 26 Victoria
Evans Lindsey S E VX35112 2/29 Aus Inf 24 Victoria
Dean David Roy VX55871 2/29 Aus Inf 23 Victoria
Cant William T T NX45840 2/29 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Campbell William J VX42411 2/29 Aus Inf 36 Victoria
Browning Albert J VX39621 2/29 Aus Inf 36 Victoria
Brew Phillip J VX55590 2/29 Aus Inf 21 Victoria
Breddin William W VX44683 2/29 Aus Inf 23 New Sth Wales
Bennetts William G VX47011 2/29 Aus Inf 29 Victoria
Bennetts Kenneth VX46999 2/29 Aus Inf 21 Victoria
Bennett Leslie C VX35496 2/29 Aus Inf 29 Victoria
Annett Reginald A VX45018 2/29 Aus Inf 30 Victoria
Halson Roy N VX55217 2/29 Aus Inf 35 Victoria
Corr Stewart VX40424 2/29 Aus Inf 26 Victoria
Beard Alexandra VX45128 2/29 Aus Inf 21 Victoria
Worrall Albert E VX42178 2.29 Aus Inf 35 Victoria
Costello Arthur G NX52674 2/9 Aus Inf 27 New sth Wales
Wilsher jJames G 3855204 2/Loyal reg 28 ??
Walker George 3855171 2/Loyal reg 27 Kendall
Stevenson Joseph W 3855113 2/Loyal reg 26 Lewisham
Spalding Fred 3856093 2/Loyal reg 23Lytham St Annes
Sloan Hugh Y 3855668 2/Loyal reg 27 ??
Sloan Frederick 3857677 2/Loyal reg 21 ??
Shaw Joseph 3856933 2/Loyal reg 27 ??
Roberts Harold 3713437 2/Loyal reg 22 ???
Pryle Harold 3856194 2/Loyal reg 22 Middleton
Pennington Edward 3856207 2/Loyal reg 25 Wigan
Parker John J 3855501 2/Loyal reg 31 Blackpool
Osbourne Phillip 3854712 2/Loyal reg 27 ??
Murphy John 3851664 2/Loyal reg 35 ??
Murphy Thomas 3854741 2/Loyal reg 32 ??
Moorland Thomas S 3850221 2/Loyal reg 39 Preston
McGuire James 3855762 2/Loyal reg 27 Farnworth
Linney Thomas 3856420 2/Loyal reg 22 Manchester
Knockton Dennis 3855908 2/Loyal reg 23 Blackburn
Kennedy Martin 3860671 2/Loyal reg 21 Oldham
Kennedy Henry 3855089 2/Loyal reg 26 ??
Hawken Ralph 3865646 2/Loyal reg 18 Lancs
Hart Richard 3857543 2/Loyal reg 21 Wigan
Harrison Benjamin 3855642 2/Loyal reg 25 Burnley
Hallhead Thomas 3854414 2/Loyal reg 27 ??
Griffiths Trevor 3961711 2/Loyal reg 22 Aberdare
Greenwood James 3860665 2/Loyal reg 26 ??
Green James 3858850 2/Loyal reg 22 Pemberton Lancs
Good George J 3855539 2/Loyal reg 24 ??
Gilbert Alfred 3858527 2/Loyal reg 22 Preston
Garsden Joseph 3854148 2/Loyal reg 28 ??
Fowler John 3855195 2/Loyal reg 28 ??
Foster John 3855981 2/Loyal reg 22 ??
Fielding William 3855353 2/Loyal reg 26 ??
Fildes Norman 3855665 2/Loyal reg 26 Burnley
Fawcett Harry 3856701 2/Loyal reg 19 Everton
Eckersley Harry 3858514 2/Loyal reg 23 ??
Croston James W 3855704 2/Loyal reg 25 ??
Crossley Joseph 3855227 2/Loyal reg 28 ??
Cook James E 3857566 2/Loyal reg 20 Ashton
Canby Sylvester 3855004 2/Loyal reg 27 Burnley
Blackledge Wilfred 3859507 2/Loyal reg 24 ??
Bird Thomas 3854665 2/Loyal reg 30 Wigan
Barker George W 3857479 2/Loyal reg 27 Stoke
Atherton TThomas H 3858464 2/Loyal reg 23 ??
Ansell John 3865694 2/Loyal reg 20 ??
Carrol James 3854743 2/Loyal reg 31 Walsworth
Barnes Fred 3858473 2/Loyals 22 ??
Jones Donald A 5773006 5/Norfolk 24 ??
Guymer Christopher G 5775221 5/Norfolk 22 Fakenham
Frost Geoffrey G 5777088 5/Norfolk 26 Norwich
Gray Leonard 5774421 6/Norfolk 35 Norwich
Crump Frederick C 796308 6/Norfolk 30 Lakenham
Kennedy David J 879001 60 A/T R A 21 Glasgow
Moore William A NX60460 8 Provost 22 New Sth Wales
Gourley David 1527657 80 A/T R A 24 Whitchurch
Flowers Robert 1107737 80 A/T RA 33 Shepherd Bush
Campbell John 866722 80 A/T RA 36 Glasgow
The next case concerns men who had actually been taken prisoner of war, and the fact reported to the British Government
Here is the true story concerning the mass murder of 387 British and Allied prisoners of war by entombment. Taken from captain Godwin's War Criminals investigation office file. 125 M which the captain was ordered by general MackArthur to destroy in 1948.
Statement taken from Lt Yoshiro Tuda formerly second in command of the forced labour camp on the island of Sado, which was an unlisted prisoner of war camp.
Lt Yoshiro Tsuda, although evasive throughout his interrogation, answered Most questions sufficiently helpful to enable the investigating officer to piece together the reasons and cause of the disappearance of 387 Allied prisoners of war, and including the date of their execution.
'On the morning of the 2nd August 1945, I was ordered by major Masami Sadakichi the camp commandant, to detail the usual working parties at the nearby mine but with special instructions to ensure that every prisoner entered the mine. Usually fifty prisoners remained on top of the mine to empty the rakes of laden steel bins into nearby hoppers.
I pointed out this need to major Sadakichi, but he dismissed my concern with the comment that the mine was no longer viable and would be abandoned that day. Superior orders decreed that all prisoners of war were to be ordered to the deepest part of the mine, some 400 feet. Major Sadakichi further impressed on me that the guard detail were to carry out their duties in the normal manner, and not to alarm the prisoners.
I further advised major Sadakichi that a demolition detail had set concealed explosive charges inside the mine at depths of 100, 200, and 300 feet. This task had been carried out during the previous night. After the prisoners had been set hewing the ore from the marked areas . I was ordered to instruct Sgt major Mitsonobu Sakamoto the NCO in charge of the guards, to ensure their discreet out of the mine. The toiling prisoners were to be left to their obvious fate.
Between 8-45 and 9 am on the morning of the 2nd August 1945 All of the guards emerged from the mine tunnel whereupon a number of steel ore bins were pushed to the mines downward entrance and allowed to gather speed into its depths. At 9.10 am and with no further bins to dispose of , a signal was given to blow up the mine. I was watching from a distance of 100 yards and witnessed a rush of smoke and dust from the mines entrance. While waiting for the smoke and dust to clear, every available guard was set to work dismantling the steel narrow gauge track , and then carrying portions of it to the mines entrance . By 10-30am or thereabouts all traces of the steel track had been removed. From what I can recall the demolition detail then entered the mine to set more explosives just inside the mine entrance. It was while returning to the prison camp that I heard a very loud explosion. Looking back I saw an avalanche of rock and earth was completely covering where the mines entrance had been. Knowing that the mine had been collapsed in three separate places, I was certain that the prisoners were doomed.
Upon returning to the camp I immediately reported to major Sadakichi that the mine had been totally destroyed and all 387 POWs entombed in its depths.
JAPANESE KILLING FIELDS
Ambo Isle Laha Beheadings POWs 312 1942
Adaman Isles Widespread Massacre Civilians 1386 1945
Ballae Isle Ballale Massacre Civilians 60 1942
Banga Is Serut Beheadings Civilians 103 1942
Batan Is Buyan beheadings Airmen 4 1944
Borneo Balikpapan beheadings POWs 9 1942
Borneo Banjarmasin Massacre Civilians 60 1942
Borneo Loa Kulu Massacre civilians 598 1945
Borneo Pontianake Shooting Civilans 46 1942
Borneo Sandakan Massacre POWs 598 1945
Burma Widespread Beheading/shooting POWs 138 1944
Celebes Widespread Massacre Civilians 213 1942
Burma Kwai Railway Slave Labour POWs 6960 1942-44
Formosa POW camps Shooting POWs 170 1943-45
Japan POW camps Sickness/Brutality POWs 2315 1942-45
Malaya Parit Sulong Machine Gunning POWs 157 1942
Maritime Various Massacres Ships Crews 1460 1942-45
Misool Is Binjap Beheadings Airmen 5 1943
Moluccas Is Obi Beheading Airmen 3 1943
Netherlands Maritime Pig Basket drowning POWs 1390 1942-45
New Britain Widespread Torture/Behead POWs 388 1952-45
New Guinea Widespread Torture/Behad Mixed 640 1942-45
New Ireland widespread Beheadings POWs 17 1943-44
Palua Ilse Palau massacre Civilians 37 1942-44
Philippines Widesprad Massacres PO/Civilians19740 1942-44
Sado Isle Aikawa Entombment POWs 387 1945
Sarawak Widespread Massacre Civilians 290 1942-45
Singapore Widespread Massacre Civilians 13760 1942-45
Sumatra Widespread Massacre POW/Civilians 14000 1942-45
Samba Is Widespread Massacres POW/Civilians 144 1942-44
Sumbawa Widespread Massacre POWs/Civilians 290 1942-45
Tarawa Tarawa Beheadings NZ Cost watch 23 1942
Truk Is Truk Beheadings Merchant Navy 19 1944
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